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I expect to get some flak for this, but I can't find the answer anywhere. It seems like it should be so obvious. Sometimes, when I type a bad command in a bash terminal, the cursor just jumps down to the next line without any error or anything. I can't tell what I did wrong. It's like I'm stuck in the program. Reenactment:

$ tidy

Me: "Oops! That's not what I meant to type..."


Me: "That didn't work..."


I know I screwed up but how do I get back to the prompt without closing the terminal?

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Related: What causes various signals to be sent? –  Gilles Aug 16 '12 at 23:23
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3 Answers

up vote 8 down vote accepted

You can always try the obvious things like ^C, ^D (eof), Escape etc., but if all fails I usually end up suspending the command with ^Z (Control-Z) which puts me back into the shell.

I then do a ps command and note the PID (process id) of the command and then issue a kill thePID (kill -9 thePID if the former didn't work) command to terminate the application.

Note that this is not a tidy (no pun intended) way to terminate the application/command and you run the risk of perhaps no saving some data etc.

An example (I'd have used tidy but I don't have it installed):

$ gnuplot

    G N U P L O T
    Version 4.2 patchlevel 6 
    Send bug reports and suggestions to <http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnuplot>

Terminal type set to 'wxt'
gnuplot>               #####  typed ^Z here
[1]+  Stopped                 gnuplot
$ ps
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
 1681 pts/1    00:00:00 tcsh
 1690 pts/1    00:00:00 bash
 1708 pts/1    00:00:00 gnuplot
 1709 pts/1    00:00:00 ps

$ kill 1708            ###### didn't kill the command as ps shows

$ ps
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
 1681 pts/1    00:00:00 tcsh
 1690 pts/1    00:00:00 bash
 1708 pts/1    00:00:00 gnuplot
 1710 pts/1    00:00:00 ps
$ kill -9 1708           ### -9 did the trick
[1]+  Killed                  gnuplot

$ ps
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
 1681 pts/1    00:00:00 tcsh
 1690 pts/1    00:00:00 bash
 1711 pts/1    00:00:00 ps
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That's it!! ^Z to the rescue. Thank you so much. –  Koveras Aug 16 '12 at 17:38
@davidkennedy85 Happy to help ... I was just cobbling together an example to post –  Levon Aug 16 '12 at 17:39
^\ (ctrl-backslash, SIGQUIT) works in some stubborn utilities that don't respond to ^C. –  mrb Aug 16 '12 at 19:11
Shh! Don't tell people about the ^\ or they'll start SIG_IGN'ing that too, then what will we do? –  Alan Curry Aug 16 '12 at 19:55
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Try pressing Ctrl-D or Ctrl-C. If it fails, kill the process .

Trying with the tidy command you mentioned, Ctrl-D works.

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CTRL+D ==  exit shell command


CTRL+C == terminate the current process, Of course may be the given software handle it and CTRL+C doens't work

Of course , They produce a kernel signal if you want to know more, read :

man 7 signal
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Ctrl+D is end-of-file, not directly exit. –  Gilles Aug 16 '12 at 23:22
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