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During installation of Debian I was asked for a Standard Proxy String in the form of http://user:password@host:port/, which I entered. apt-get ran and retrieved files during update, and now Debian is installed. However, when I tried running sudo apt-get install ..., I get an error message containing the message Could not resolve proxy_host where proxy_host is the host I entered during installation.

Are there other places where I have to set up the proxy information?

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'Could not resolve' sounds more like a DNS or general networking problem. Can you resolve (and access, ping) the proxy host? – sr_ Jul 9 '12 at 10:37
How do I test that? Everything worked fine during installation. -- Just read the ping part... – lowerkey Jul 9 '12 at 10:59
@sr_ I'm not able to ping the proxy host. – lowerkey Jul 9 '12 at 11:06
Your network settings might be incorrect, then. Have a look at the Debian Handbook's section on network configuration. (You could also be missing some firmware for your NIC.) – sr_ Jul 9 '12 at 12:32
How does your machine get internet access? Post the output of ifconfig and cat /etc/network/interfaces. Replace private information by placeholders if you like, but consistently (always the same placeholder for the same piece of information). – Gilles Jul 9 '12 at 21:48

The http proxy information, entered during the set up, should (normally) end up in the file /etc/apt/apt.conf

Acquire::http:Proxy "http://user:password@host:port/";
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