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-I option set header file searching path for gcc/g++, and CPLUS_INCLUDE_PATH/CPATH append the searching path list.

Then what about libs? It seems that LD_LIBRARY_PATH is just a path list for run-time library searching. -L option is necessary to specify any lib path other than /usr/lib and /usr/local/lib.

Is there an environment variable similar to CPATH/CPLUS_INCLUDE_PATH, to do the compile-time job?

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LD_LIBRARY_PATH is used for the run-time search of dynamically linked libraries, as those are dynamically linked libraries. If you want something defined on compile time, have you considered statically-linked libraries? (You get this by passing the -static option to gcc or to the linker.) – njsg Jul 9 '12 at 8:34
    
There is nothing to worry about runtime execution. I just want to configure the compile environment in my .bashrc rather than gcc command line. – Martin Wang Jul 9 '12 at 8:57
    
Oh, got it. From the manpage, I guess LIBRARY_PATH is what you're looking for, "The value of LIBRARY_PATH is a colon-separated list of directories, [...] Linking using GCC also uses these directories when searching for ordinary libraries for the -l option (but directories specified with -L come first)." – njsg Jul 9 '12 at 9:23
    
Also, if you're going through your first steps in program compilation, be sure to read a bit about Makefiles and make, which are one of the ways to automate the compile options and procedures for a project. – njsg Jul 9 '12 at 9:25
    
LIBRARY_PATH works – Martin Wang Jul 9 '12 at 9:35

This Q appears to have been answered in the comments. Per njsg's comment,

LIBRARY_PATH is what you're looking for

"The value of LIBRARY_PATH is a colon-separated list of directories, [...] Linking using GCC also uses these directories when searching for ordinary libraries for the -l option (but directories specified with -L come first)."

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