Ubuntu is derived from Sid, the unstable and rolling release version of Debian, every Ubuntu major release is nothing more than a Sid freezed at a certain point in time and enriched with everything that transform a Debian into an Ubuntu distribution.
The answer to your question is no.
Some libraries are also placed in directories with different naming convention, the Ubuntu kernel is not even close to the vanilla flavour and is full of patches.
Keep also in mind that Canonical, considering what its business is, is contributing literally zero to the linux kernel development, much less than many companies and corporation, really, almost zero, just some minor patches in the spare time when they want to, they don't like to share and contribute, they like to start from a certain type of codebase and customize everything.
If you are looking for a system widely compatible with a big portion of software and really stable, go for a Debian, Ubuntu is designed to be good looking and fatty.