Unix & Linux Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for users of Linux, FreeBSD and other Un*x-like operating systems. Join them; it only takes a minute:

Sign up
Here's how it works:
  1. Anybody can ask a question
  2. Anybody can answer
  3. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top

I am trying to write a bash shell function that will allow me to remove duplicate copies of directories from my path environment.

I was told that it is possible to achieve this with a one line command using the awk command, but I cannot figure out how to do it. Anybody know how? I am new to linux so please don't be too technical.

share|improve this question
— An exercise for stackoverflow, as to me. :) – poige Jun 14 '12 at 12:18
@poige nope, this is the proper place. – bahamat Jun 14 '12 at 20:52

13 Answers 13

If you don't already have duplicates in the PATH and you only want to add directories if they are not already there, you can do it easily with the shell alone.

for x in /path/to/add …; do
  case ":$PATH:" in
    *":$x:"*) :;; # already there
    *) PATH="$x:$PATH";;

And here's a shell snippet that removes duplicates from $PATH. It goes through the entries one by one, and copies those that haven't been seen yet.

if [ -n "$PATH" ]; then
  old_PATH=$PATH:; PATH=
  while [ -n "$old_PATH" ]; do
    x=${old_PATH%%:*}       # the first remaining entry
    case $PATH: in
      *:"$x":*) ;;         # already there
      *) PATH=$PATH:$x;;    # not there yet
  unset old_PATH x
share|improve this answer
Probably the best method among those listed here. – jw013 Sep 19 '12 at 19:42
Do you mean -f instead of -g. Using bash 3 and 4 I can't see -g as an option but can see -f which is the equivalent of the noglob option. – Burhan Ali Apr 24 '13 at 10:50
@BurhanAli Yes, indeed. I ainwgiq^Wsomehow managed to get it wrong twice, sorry. – Gilles Apr 24 '13 at 14:15

Here's an intelligible one-liner solution that does all the right things: removes duplicates, preserves the ordering of paths, and doesn't add a colon at the end. So it should give you a deduplicated PATH that gives exactly the same behavior as the original:

PATH="$(echo $PATH | perl -e 'print join(":", grep { not $seen{$_}++ } split(/:/, scalar <>))')"

It simply splits on colon (split(/:/, scalar <>)), uses uses grep { not $seen{$_}++ } to filter out any repeated instances of paths except for the first occurrence, and then joins the remaining ones back together separated by colons and prints the result (print join(":", ...)).

If you want some more structure around it, as well as the ability to deduplicate other variables as well, try this snippet, which I'm currently using in my own config:

# Deduplicate path variables
get_var () {
    eval "echo \$$1"
set_var () {
    eval "$1=\"$2\""
dedup_pathvar () {
    pathvar_value="$(get_var $pathvar_name)"
    deduped_path="$(echo $pathvar_value | perl -e 'print join(":",grep { not $seen{$_}++ } split(/:/, scalar <>))')"
    set_var $pathvar_name "$deduped_path"
dedup_pathvar PATH
dedup_pathvar MANPATH

That code will deduplicate both PATH and MANPATH, and you can easily call dedup_pathvar on other variables that hold colon-separated lists of paths (e.g. PYTHONPATH).

share|improve this answer
For some reason I had to add a chomp to remove a trailing newline. This worked for me: perl -ne 'chomp; print join(":", grep { !$seen{$_}++ } split(/:/))' <<<"$PATH" – Håkon Hægland Dec 28 '14 at 19:05

There has been a similar discussion about this here.

I take a bit of a different approach. Instead of just accepting the PATH that is set from all the different initialization files that get installed, I prefer using getconf to identify the system path and place it first, then add my preferred path order, then use awk to remove any duplicates. This may or may not really speed up command execution (and in theory be more secure), but it gives me warm fuzzies.

# I am entering my preferred PATH order here because it gets set,
# appended, reset, appended again and ends up in such a jumbled order.
# The duplicates get removed, preserving my preferred order.
PATH=$(command -p getconf PATH):/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin:$PATH
# Remove duplicates
PATH="$(printf "%s" "${PATH}" | /usr/bin/awk -v RS=: -v ORS=: '!($0 in a) {a[$0]; print}')"
export PATH

[~]$ echo $PATH
share|improve this answer
This is very dangerous because you add a trailing : to the PATH (i.e. an empty string entry), because then the current working directory is part of your PATH. – maxschlepzig Apr 13 '14 at 10:05

Here is an AWK one liner.

$ PATH=$(echo -n $PATH \
     | awk -vRS=: -vORS= '!a[$0]++ {if (NR>1) printf(":"); printf("%s", $0) }' )


  • echo -n prints the content of $PATH without a trailing newline
  • RS=: changes the input record delimiter character (default is newline)
  • ORS= changes the output record delimiter to the empty string
  • a the name of an implicitly created array
  • $0 references the current record
  • a[$0] is a associative array dereference
  • ++ is the post-increment operator
  • !a[$0]++ guards the right hand side, i.e. it makes sure that the current record is only printed, if it wasn't printed before
  • NR the current record number, starting with 1

That means that AWK is used to split the PATH content along the : delimiter characters and to filter out duplicate entries without modifying the order.

Since AWK associative arrays are implemented as hash tables the runtime is linear (i.e. in O(n)).

Note that we don't need look for quoted : characters because shells don't provide quoting to support directories with : in its name in the PATH variable.

share|improve this answer
Thank you for the explanation! – aggsol Jul 7 at 9:32

Also sed can do the job:

MYPATH=$(echo $MYPATH | sed ':b;s/:\([^:]*\)\(:.*\):\1/:\1\2/;tb')

this one works well only in case first path is . like in dogbane's example.

In general case you need to add yet another s command:

MYPATH=$(echo $MYPATH | sed ':b;s/:\([^:]*\)\(:.*\):\1/:\1\2/;tb;s/^\([^:]*\)\(:.*\):\1/:\1\2/')

It works even on such construction:

$ echo "/bin:.:/foo/bar/bin:/usr/bin:/foo/bar/bin:/foo/bar/bin:/bar/bin:/usr/bin:/bin" \
| sed ':b;s/:\([^:]*\)\(:.*\):\1/:\1\2/;tb;s/^\([^:]*\)\(:.*\):\1/\1\2/'

share|improve this answer

Here's a sleek one:

echo -n $PATH | awk -v RS=: -v ORS=: '!arr[$0]++'

Longer (to see how it works):

echo -n $PATH | awk -v RS=: -v ORS=: '{ if (!arr[$0]++) { print $0 } }'

Ok, since you're new to linux, here is how to actually set PATH without a trailing ":"

PATH=`echo -n $PATH | awk -v RS=: '{ if (!arr[$0]++) {printf("%s%s",!ln++?"":":",$0)}}'`

btw make sure to NOT have directories containing ":" in your PATH, otherwise it is gonna be screwed.

some credit to:

share|improve this answer
-1 this doesn't work. I still see duplicates in my path. – dogbane Jun 14 '12 at 7:34
@dogbane: It removes duplicates for me. However it has a subtle problem. The output has a : on the end which if set as your $PATH, means the current directory is added the path. This has security implications on a multi-user machine. – camh Jun 14 '12 at 7:42
@dogbane, it works and I edited post to have a one line command without the trailing : – akostadinov Jun 14 '12 at 7:59
@dogbane your solution has a trailing : in the output – akostadinov Jun 14 '12 at 8:12
hmm, your third command works, but the first two do not work unless I use echo -n. Your commands don't seem to work with "here strings" e.g. try: awk -v RS=: -v ORS=: '!arr[$0]++' <<< ".:/foo/bin:/bar/bin:/foo/bin" – dogbane Jun 14 '12 at 8:32
PATH=`awk -F: '{for (i=1;i<=NF;i++) { if ( !x[$i]++ ) printf("%s:",$i); }}' <<< $PATH`

Explanation of awk code:

  1. Separate the input by colons.
  2. Append new path entries to associative array for fast duplicate look-up.
  3. Prints the associative array.

In addition to being terse, this one-liner is fast: awk uses a chaining hash-table to achieve amortized O(1) performance.

based on Removing duplicate $PATH entries

share|improve this answer
Old post, but could you explain: if ( !x[$i]++ ) . Thanks. – Cbhihe Jul 12 at 11:36

This is my version:

path_no_dup () 
    local IFS=: p=();

    while read -r; do
    done < <(sort -u <(read -ra arr <<< "$1" && printf '%s\n' "${arr[@]}"));

    # Do whatever you like with "${p[*]}"
    echo "${p[*]}"

Usage: path_no_dup "$PATH"

Sample output:

rany$ v='a:a:a:b:b:b:c:c:c:a:a:a:b:c:a'; path_no_dup "$v"
share|improve this answer
PATH=`perl -e 'print join ":", grep {!$h{$_}++} split ":", $ENV{PATH}'`
export PATH

This uses perl and has several benefits:

  1. It removes duplicates
  2. It keeps sort order
  3. It keeps the earliest appearance (/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin will result in /usr/bin:/sbin)
share|improve this answer

Recent bash versions (>= 4) also of associative arrays, i.e. you can also use a bash 'one liner' for it:

PATH=$(IFS=:; declare -A a; NR=0; for i in $PATH; do NR=$((NR+1)); \
       if [ \! ${a[$i]+_} ]; then if [ $NR -gt 1 ]; then echo -n ':'; fi; \
                                  echo -n $i; a[$i]=1; fi; done)


  • IFS changes the input field separator to :
  • declare -A declares an associative array
  • ${a[$i]+_} is a parameter expansion meaning: _ is substituted if and only if a[$i] is set. This is similar to ${parameter:+word} which also tests for not-null. Thus, in the following evaluation of the conditional, the expression _ (i.e. a single character string) evaluates to true (this is equivalent to -n _) - while an empty expression evaluates to false.
share|improve this answer
+1: nice script style, but can you explain the particular syntax: ${a[$i]+_} by editing your answer and adding one bullet. The rest is perfectly understandable but you lost me there. Thank you. – Cbhihe Jul 12 at 11:28
@Cbhihe, I've added a bullet point that addresses this expansion. – maxschlepzig Jul 12 at 19:23
Thank you very much. Very interesting. I did not think that was possible with arrays (non-strings)... – Cbhihe Jul 12 at 20:52

Use awk to split the path on :, then loop over each field and store it in an array. If you come across a field which is already in the array, that means you have seen it before, so don't print it.

Here is an example:

$ MYPATH=.:/foo/bar/bin:/usr/bin:/foo/bar/bin
$ awk -F: '{for(i=1;i<=NF;i++) if(!($i in arr)){arr[$i];printf s$i;s=":"}}' <<< "$MYPATH"

(Updated to remove the trailing :.)

share|improve this answer

I would do it just with basic tools such as tr, sort and uniq:

NEW_PATH=`echo $PATH | tr ':' '\n' | sort | uniq | tr '\n' ':'`

If there is nothing special or weird in your path it should work

share|improve this answer
btw, you can use sort -u instead of sort | uniq. – rush Apr 25 '13 at 18:44
Since the order of the PATH elements is significant, this is not very useful. – maxschlepzig Apr 13 '14 at 9:13

A solution - not one that is as elegant as those that change the *RS variables, but perhaps reasonably clear:

PATH=`awk 'BEGIN {np="";split(ENVIRON["PATH"],p,":"); for(x=0;x<length(p);x++) {  pe=p[x]; if(e[pe] != "") continue; e[pe] = pe; if(np != "") np=np ":"; np=np pe}} END { print np }' /dev/null`

The entire program works in the BEGIN and END blocks. It pulls your PATH variable from the environment, splitting it into units. It then iterates over the resulting array p (which is created in order by split()). The array e is an associative array that is used to determine whether or not we've seen the current path element (e.g. /usr/local/bin) before, and if not, is appended to np, with logic to append a colon to np if there is already text in np. The END block simply echos np. This could be further simplified by adding the -F: flag, eliminating the third argument to split() (as it defaults to FS), and changing np = np ":" to np = np FS, giving us:

awk -F: 'BEGIN {np="";split(ENVIRON["PATH"],p); for(x=0;x<length(p);x++) {  pe=p[x]; if(e[pe] != "") continue; e[pe] = pe; if(np != "") np=np FS; np=np pe}} END { print np }' /dev/null

Naïvely, I believed that for(element in array) would preserve order, but it doesn’t, so my original solution doesn’t work, as folks would get upset if someone suddenly scrambled the order of their $PATH:

awk 'BEGIN {np="";split(ENVIRON["PATH"],p,":"); for(x in p) { pe=p[x]; if(e[pe] != "") continue; e[pe] = pe; if(np != "") np=np ":"; np=np pe}} END { print np }' /dev/null
share|improve this answer

Your Answer


By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.