Good answer is already posted by @StevenD, yet I think this might clarify it a bit more.
The reason that the process is killed on termination of the terminal is that the process you start is a child process of the terminal. Once you close the terminal, this will kill these child processes as well. You can see the process tree with
pstree, for example when running
kate & in Konsole:
│ │ └─pstree
To make the
kate process detached from
konsole when you terminate
nohup with the command, like this:
nohup kate &
pstree will look like this:
kate will survive. :)
An alternative is using
byobu, which will keep the shell running, independent of the terminal.