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Both terminal multiplexers (screen, tmux) and keyboard-driven tiling window managers (ratpoison, dwm, xmonad) provide similar functionality. Is there any benefit in using both at the same time? What about problems that may arise?

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They do? The only feature I can think of that overlaps is the ability to split a window into many –  Michael Mrozek May 16 '12 at 5:33
    
@MichaelMrozek I have 0 experience with either of them so I'm just going of some stuff I've read. It would be great if you could point out some differences. –  Pubby May 16 '12 at 5:52
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Be aware that for a window manager, every window is just a window – and that's about it. Therefore lots of terminal-related things apart from window splitting are unavailable to the WM. –  sr_ May 16 '12 at 8:21
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I use dwm and tmux. Before learning to use tmux, I would have multiple terminals open for different things, and have them in different tags. Now I can run everything inside of one tmux session, under a single tag, and can detach and reattach without losing state if I need to restart X.

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The added benefit of terminal multiplexers is that your multiplexer sessions will still be alive and you can reconnect to them even if X (your desktop session) crashes, or you logged out of X.

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No. In those rare cases where screen inside of screen or tmux inside of tmux is useful, both programs provide a simple means of passing control to the nested instance.

Screen offers serial console capabilities, but I just use a dedicated app (miniterm.py distributed with python) when I need that. Otherwise I can't think of anything offhand that either can do and the other can't, but one might do it simpler than the other.

I would learn one or the other, and if you're curious or dissatisfied with what you picked, try the other. I prefer tmux, personally.

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