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I asked a previous question to try and isolate the source of an increase in CPU usage when moving an application from RHEL 5 to RHEL 6. The analysis that I did for that seems to indicate that it is being caused by the CFS in the kernel. I wrote a test application to try and verify if this was the case (original test application removed to fit in size limit, but still available in git repo.

I compiled it with the following command on RHEL 5:

cc test_select_work.c -O2 -DSLEEP_TYPE=0 -Wall -Wextra -lm -lpthread -o test_select_work

I then played with the parameters until the execution time per iteration was about 1 ms on a Dell Precision m6500.

I got the following result on RHEL 5:

./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 4
time_per_iteration: min: 911.5 us avg: 913.7 us max: 917.1 us stddev: 2.4 us
./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 8
time_per_iteration: min: 1802.6 us avg: 1803.9 us max: 1809.1 us stddev: 2.1 us
./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 40
time_per_iteration: min: 7580.4 us avg: 8567.3 us max: 9022.0 us stddev: 299.6 us

And the following on RHEL 6:

./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 4
time_per_iteration: min: 914.6 us avg: 975.7 us max: 1034.5 us stddev: 50.0 us
./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 8
time_per_iteration: min: 1683.9 us avg: 1771.8 us max: 1810.8 us stddev: 43.4 us
./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 40
time_per_iteration: min: 7997.1 us avg: 8709.1 us max: 9061.8 us stddev: 310.0 us

On both versions, these results were about what I expected with the average amount of time per iteration scaling relatively linearly. I then recompiled with -DSLEEP_TYPE=1 and got the following results on RHEL 5:

./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 4
time_per_iteration: min: 1803.3 us avg: 1902.8 us max: 2001.5 us stddev: 113.8 us
./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 8
time_per_iteration: min: 1997.1 us avg: 2002.0 us max: 2010.8 us stddev: 5.0 us
./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 40
time_per_iteration: min: 6958.4 us avg: 8397.9 us max: 9423.7 us stddev: 619.7 us

And the following results on RHEL 6:

./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 4
time_per_iteration: min: 2107.1 us avg: 2143.1 us max: 2177.7 us stddev: 30.3 us
./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 8
time_per_iteration: min: 2903.3 us avg: 2903.8 us max: 2904.3 us stddev: 0.3 us
./test_select_work 1000 10000 300 40
time_per_iteration: min: 8877.7.1 us avg: 9016.3 us max: 9112.6 us stddev: 62.9 us

On RHEL 5, the results were about what I expected(4 threads taking twice as long because of the 1 ms sleep but the 8 threads taking the same amount of time since each thread is now sleeping for about half the time, and a still fairly linear increase).

However, with RHEL 6, the time taken with 4 threads increased by about 15% more than the expected doubling and the 8 thread case increased by about 45% more than the expected slight increase. The increase in the 4 thread case seems to be that RHEL 6 is actually sleeping for a handful of microseconds more than 1 ms while RHEL 5 is only sleep about 900 us, but this doesn't explain the unexpectedly large increase in the 8 and 40 thread cases.

I saw similar types of behaviour with all 3 -DSLEEP_TYPE values. I also tried playing with the scheduler parameters in sysctl, but nothing seemed to have a significant impact on the results. Any ideas on how I can further diagnose this issue?

UPDATE: 2012-05-07

I added measurements of the user and system CPU usage from /proc/stat//tasks//stat as an output of the test to try and get another point of observation. I also found an issue with the way the mean and standard deviation were being updated that was introduced when I added the outer iteration loop, so I will add the new plots that have the corrected mean and standard deviation measurements. I have included the updated program. I also made a git repo to track the code and it's available here.

#include <limits.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <poll.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include <sched.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/select.h>
#include <sys/syscall.h>
#include <sys/time.h>


// Apparently GLIBC doesn't provide a wrapper for this function so provide it here
#ifndef HAS_GETTID
pid_t gettid(void)
{
  return syscall(SYS_gettid);
}
#endif


// The different type of sleep that are supported
enum sleep_type {
  SLEEP_TYPE_NONE,
  SLEEP_TYPE_SELECT,
  SLEEP_TYPE_POLL,
  SLEEP_TYPE_USLEEP,
  SLEEP_TYPE_YIELD,
  SLEEP_TYPE_PTHREAD_COND,
  SLEEP_TYPE_NANOSLEEP,
};

// Information returned by the processing thread
struct thread_res {
  long long clock;
  long long user;
  long long sys;
};

// Function type for doing work with a sleep
typedef struct thread_res *(*work_func)(const int pid, const int sleep_time, const int num_iterations, const int work_size);

// Information passed to the thread
struct thread_info {
  pid_t pid;
  int sleep_time;
  int num_iterations;
  int work_size;
  work_func func;
};


inline void get_thread_times(pid_t pid, pid_t tid, unsigned long long *utime, unsigned long long *stime)
{
  char filename[FILENAME_MAX];
  FILE *f;

  sprintf(filename, "/proc/%d/task/%d/stat", pid, tid);
  f = fopen(filename, "r");
  if (f == NULL) {
    *utime = 0;
    *stime = 0;
    return;
  }

  fscanf(f, "%*d %*s %*c %*d %*d %*d %*d %*d %*u %*u %*u %*u %*u %Lu %Lu", utime, stime);

  fclose(f);
}

// In order to make SLEEP_TYPE a run-time parameter function pointers are used.
// The function pointer could have been to the sleep function being used, but
// then that would mean an extra function call inside of the "work loop" and I
// wanted to keep the measurements as tight as possible and the extra work being
// done to be as small/controlled as possible so instead the work is declared as
// a seriees of macros that are called in all of the sleep functions. The code
// is a bit uglier this way, but I believe it results in a more accurate test.

// Fill in a buffer with random numbers (taken from latt.c by Jens Axboe <jens.axboe@oracle.com>)
#define DECLARE_FUNC(NAME) struct thread_res *do_work_##NAME(const int pid, const int sleep_time, const int num_iterations, const int work_size)

#define DECLARE_WORK() \
  int *buf; \
  int pseed; \
  int inum, bnum; \
  pid_t tid; \
  struct timeval clock_before, clock_after; \
  unsigned long long user_before, user_after; \
  unsigned long long sys_before, sys_after; \
  struct thread_res *diff; \
  tid = gettid(); \
  buf = malloc(work_size * sizeof(*buf)); \
  diff = malloc(sizeof(*diff)); \
  get_thread_times(pid, tid, &user_before, &sys_before); \
  gettimeofday(&clock_before, NULL)

#define DO_WORK(SLEEP_FUNC) \
  for (inum=0; inum<num_iterations; ++inum) { \
    SLEEP_FUNC \
     \
    pseed = 1; \
    for (bnum=0; bnum<work_size; ++bnum) { \
      pseed = pseed * 1103515245 + 12345; \
      buf[bnum] = (pseed / 65536) % 32768; \
    } \
  } \

#define FINISH_WORK() \
  gettimeofday(&clock_after, NULL); \
  get_thread_times(pid, tid, &user_after, &sys_after); \
  diff->clock = 1000000LL * (clock_after.tv_sec - clock_before.tv_sec); \
  diff->clock += clock_after.tv_usec - clock_before.tv_usec; \
  diff->user = user_after - user_before; \
  diff->sys = sys_after - sys_before; \
  free(buf); \
  return diff

DECLARE_FUNC(nosleep)

{
  DECLARE_WORK();

  // Let the compiler know that sleep_time isn't used in this function
  (void)sleep_time;

  DO_WORK();

  FINISH_WORK();
}

DECLARE_FUNC(select)
{
  struct timeval ts;
  DECLARE_WORK();

  DO_WORK(
    ts.tv_sec = 0;
    ts.tv_usec = sleep_time;
    select(0, 0, 0, 0, &ts);
    );

  FINISH_WORK();
}

DECLARE_FUNC(poll)
{
  struct pollfd pfd;
  const int sleep_time_ms = sleep_time / 1000;
  DECLARE_WORK();

  pfd.fd = 0;
  pfd.events = 0;

  DO_WORK(
    poll(&pfd, 1, sleep_time_ms);
    );

  FINISH_WORK();
}

DECLARE_FUNC(usleep)
{
  DECLARE_WORK();

  DO_WORK(
    usleep(sleep_time);
    );

  FINISH_WORK();
}

DECLARE_FUNC(yield)
{
  DECLARE_WORK();

  // Let the compiler know that sleep_time isn't used in this function
  (void)sleep_time;

  DO_WORK(
    sched_yield();
    );

  FINISH_WORK();
}

DECLARE_FUNC(pthread_cond)
{
  pthread_cond_t cond  = PTHREAD_COND_INITIALIZER;
  pthread_mutex_t mutex = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;
  struct timespec ts;
  const int sleep_time_ns = sleep_time * 1000;
  DECLARE_WORK();

  pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex);

  DO_WORK(
    clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME, &ts);
    ts.tv_nsec += sleep_time_ns;
    if (ts.tv_nsec >= 1000000000) {
      ts.tv_sec += 1;
      ts.tv_nsec -= 1000000000;
    }
    pthread_cond_timedwait(&cond, &mutex, &ts);
    );

  pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex);

  pthread_cond_destroy(&cond);
  pthread_mutex_destroy(&mutex);

  FINISH_WORK();
}

DECLARE_FUNC(nanosleep)
{
  struct timespec req, rem;
  const int sleep_time_ns = sleep_time * 1000;
  DECLARE_WORK();

  DO_WORK(
    req.tv_sec = 0;
    req.tv_nsec = sleep_time_ns;
    nanosleep(&req, &rem);
    );

  FINISH_WORK();
}

void *do_test(void *arg)
{
  const struct thread_info *tinfo = (struct thread_info *)arg;

  // Call the function to do the work
  return (*tinfo->func)(tinfo->pid, tinfo->sleep_time, tinfo->num_iterations, tinfo->work_size);
}

struct thread_res_stats {
  double min;
  double max;
  double avg;
  double stddev;
  double prev_avg;
};

#ifdef LLONG_MAX
  #define THREAD_RES_STATS_INITIALIZER {LLONG_MAX, LLONG_MIN, 0, 0, 0}
#else
  #define THREAD_RES_STATS_INITIALIZER {LONG_MAX, LONG_MIN, 0, 0, 0}
#endif

void update_stats(struct thread_res_stats *stats, long long value, int num_samples, int num_iterations, double scale_to_usecs)
{
  // Calculate the average time per iteration
  double value_per_iteration = value * scale_to_usecs / num_iterations;

  // Update the max and min
  if (value_per_iteration < stats->min)
    stats->min = value_per_iteration;
  if (value_per_iteration > stats->max)
    stats->max = value_per_iteration;
  // Update the average
  stats->avg += (value_per_iteration - stats->avg) / (double)(num_samples);
  // Update the standard deviation
  stats->stddev += (value_per_iteration - stats->prev_avg) * (value_per_iteration - stats->avg);
  // And record the current average for use in the next update
  stats->prev_avg= stats->avg;
}

void print_stats(const char *name, const struct thread_res_stats *stats)
{
  printf("%s: min: %.1f us avg: %.1f us max: %.1f us stddev: %.1f us\n",
      name,
      stats->min,
      stats->avg,
      stats->max,
      stats->stddev);
}

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
  if (argc <= 6) {
    printf("Usage: %s <sleep_time> <outer_iterations> <inner_iterations> <work_size> <num_threads> <sleep_type>\n", argv[0]);
    printf("  outer_iterations: Number of iterations for each thread (used to calculate statistics)\n");
    printf("  inner_iterations: Number of work/sleep cycles performed in each thread (used to improve consistency/observability))\n");
    printf("  work_size: Number of array elements (in kb) that are filled with psuedo-random numbers\n");
    printf("  num_threads: Number of threads to spawn and perform work/sleep cycles in\n");
    printf("  sleep_type: 0=none 1=select 2=poll 3=usleep 4=yield 5=pthread_cond 6=nanosleep\n");
    return -1;
  }

  struct thread_info tinfo;
  int outer_iterations;
  int sleep_type;
  int s, inum, tnum, num_samples, num_threads;
  pthread_attr_t attr;
  pthread_t *threads;
  struct thread_res *res;
  struct thread_res **times;
  // Track the stats for each of the measurements
  struct thread_res_stats stats_clock = THREAD_RES_STATS_INITIALIZER;
  struct thread_res_stats stats_user = THREAD_RES_STATS_INITIALIZER;
  struct thread_res_stats stats_sys = THREAD_RES_STATS_INITIALIZER;
  // Calculate the conversion factor from clock_t to seconds
  const long clocks_per_sec = sysconf(_SC_CLK_TCK);
  const double clocks_to_usec = 1000000 / (double)clocks_per_sec;

  // Get the parameters
  tinfo.pid = getpid();
  tinfo.sleep_time = atoi(argv[1]);
  outer_iterations = atoi(argv[2]);
  tinfo.num_iterations = atoi(argv[3]);
  tinfo.work_size = atoi(argv[4]) * 1024;
  num_threads = atoi(argv[5]);
  sleep_type = atoi(argv[6]);
  switch (sleep_type) {
    case SLEEP_TYPE_NONE:   tinfo.func = &do_work_nosleep; break;
    case SLEEP_TYPE_SELECT: tinfo.func = &do_work_select;  break;
    case SLEEP_TYPE_POLL:   tinfo.func = &do_work_poll;    break;
    case SLEEP_TYPE_USLEEP: tinfo.func = &do_work_usleep;  break;
    case SLEEP_TYPE_YIELD:  tinfo.func = &do_work_yield;   break;
    case SLEEP_TYPE_PTHREAD_COND:  tinfo.func = &do_work_pthread_cond;   break;
    case SLEEP_TYPE_NANOSLEEP:  tinfo.func = &do_work_nanosleep;   break;
    default:
      printf("Invalid sleep type: %d\n", sleep_type);
      return -7;
  }

  // Initialize the thread creation attributes
  s = pthread_attr_init(&attr);
  if (s != 0) {
    printf("Error initializing thread attributes\n");
    return -2;
  }

  // Allocate the memory to track the threads
  threads = calloc(num_threads, sizeof(*threads));
  times = calloc(num_threads, sizeof(*times));
  if (threads == NULL) {
    printf("Error allocating memory to track threads\n");
    return -3;
  }

  // Initialize the number of samples
  num_samples = 0;
  // Perform the requested number of outer iterations
  for (inum=0; inum<outer_iterations; ++inum) {
    // Start all of the threads
    for (tnum=0; tnum<num_threads; ++tnum) {
      s = pthread_create(&threads[tnum], &attr, &do_test, &tinfo);

      if (s != 0) {
        printf("Error starting thread\n");
        return -4;
      }
    }

    // Wait for all the threads to finish
    for (tnum=0; tnum<num_threads; ++tnum) {
      s = pthread_join(threads[tnum], (void **)(&res));
      if (s != 0) {
        printf("Error waiting for thread\n");
        return -6;
      }

      // Save the result for processing when they're all done
      times[tnum] = res;
    }

    // For each of the threads
    for (tnum=0; tnum<num_threads; ++tnum) {
      // Increment the number of samples in the statistics
      ++num_samples;
      // Update the statistics with this measurement
      update_stats(&stats_clock, times[tnum]->clock, num_samples, tinfo.num_iterations, 1);
      update_stats(&stats_user, times[tnum]->user, num_samples, tinfo.num_iterations, clocks_to_usec);
      update_stats(&stats_sys, times[tnum]->sys, num_samples, tinfo.num_iterations, clocks_to_usec);
      // And clean it up
      free(times[tnum]);
    }
  }

  // Clean up the thread creation attributes
  s = pthread_attr_destroy(&attr);
  if (s != 0) {
    printf("Error cleaning up thread attributes\n");
    return -5;
  }

  // Finish the calculation of the standard deviation
  stats_clock.stddev = sqrtf(stats_clock.stddev / (num_samples - 1));
  stats_user.stddev = sqrtf(stats_user.stddev / (num_samples - 1));
  stats_sys.stddev = sqrtf(stats_sys.stddev / (num_samples - 1));

  // Print out the statistics of the times
  print_stats("gettimeofday_per_iteration", &stats_clock);
  print_stats("utime_per_iteration", &stats_user);
  print_stats("stime_per_iteration", &stats_sys);

  // Clean up the allocated threads and times
  free(threads);
  free(times);

  return 0;
}

I re-ran the tests on a Dell Vostro 200 (dual core CPU) with several different OS versions. I realize that several of these will have different patches applied and won't be "pure kernel code", but this was the simplest way that I could run the tests on different versions of the kernel and get comparisons. I generated plots with gnuplot and have included the version from the bugzilla about this issue.

All of these tests were run with the following command with the following script and this command ./run_test 1000 10 1000 250 8 6 <os_name>.

#!/bin/bash

if [ $# -ne 7 ]; then
  echo "Usage: `basename $0` <sleep_time> <outer_iterations> <inner_iterations> <work_size> <max_num_threads> <max_sleep_type> <test_name>"
  echo "  max_num_threads: The highest value used for num_threads in the results"
  echo "  max_sleep_type: The highest value used for sleep_type in the results"
  echo "  test_name: The name of the directory where the results will be stored"
  exit -1
fi

sleep_time=$1
outer_iterations=$2
inner_iterations=$3
work_size=$4
max_num_threads=$5
max_sleep_type=$6
test_name=$7

# Make sure this results directory doesn't already exist
if [ -e $test_name ]; then
  echo "$test_name already exists";
  exit -1;
fi
# Create the directory to put the results in
mkdir $test_name
# Run through the requested number of SLEEP_TYPE values
for i in $(seq 0 $max_sleep_type)
do
  # Run through the requested number of threads
  for j in $(seq 1 $max_num_threads)
  do
    # Print which settings are about to be run
    echo "sleep_type: $i num_threads: $j"
    # Run the test and save it to the results file
    ./test_sleep $sleep_time $outer_iterations $inner_iterations $work_size $j $i >> "$test_name/results_$i.txt"
  done
done

Here's the summary of what I observed. I will compare them in pairs this time because I think that it is a bit more informative that way.

CentOS 5.6 vs CentOS 6.2

The wall clock time (gettimeofday) per iteration on CentOS 5.6 is more varied than 6.2, but this makes sense since the CFS should do a better job of giving the processes equal CPU time resulting in more consistent results. It's also pretty clear that CentOS 6.2 is more accurate and consistent in the amount of time that it sleeps for with the different sleeping mechanisms. gettimeofday CentOS 5.6 gettimeofday CentOS 6.2

The "penalty" is definitely apparent on 6.2 with a low number of threads (visible on gettimeofday and user time plots) but it seems to be reduced with a higher number of threads (the difference in user time may just be an accounting thing since the user time measurements are so course).

utime CentOS 5.6 utime CentOS 6.2

The system time plot shows that the sleep mechanisms in 6.2 are consuming more system than they did in 5.6, which corresponds with the previous results of the simple test of 50 processes just calling select consuming a non-trivial amount of CPU on 6.2 but not 5.6.

stime CentOS 5.6 stime CentOS 6.2

Something that I believe that is worth note is that the use of sched_yield() doesn't induce the same penalty as seen by the sleep methods. My conclusion from this is that it's not the scheduler itself that is the source of the issue, but the interaction of the sleep methods with the scheduler that is the issue.

Ubuntu 7.10 vs Ubuntu 8.04-4

The difference in the kernel version between these two is smaller than that of CentOS 5.6 and 6.2, but they still span the time period when CFS was introduced. The first interesting result is that select and poll seem to be the only sleep mechanisms that have the "penalty" on 8.04 and that penalty continues to a higher number of threads than what was seen with CentOS 6.2.

gettimeofday Ubuntu 7.10 gettimeofday Ubuntu 8.04-4

The user time for select and poll and Ubuntu 7.10 are unreasonably low, so this appears to be some sort of accounting issue that existed then, but I believe is not relevant to the current issue/discussion.

utime Ubuntu 7.10 utime Ubuntu 8.04-4

The system time does seem to be higher with Ubuntu 8.04 than with Ubuntu 7.10 but this difference is FAR less distinct than what was seen with CentOS 5.6 vs 6.2.

stime Ubuntu 7.10 stime Ubuntu 8.04-4

Notes on Ubuntu 11.10 and Ubuntu 12.04

The first thing to note here is that the plots for Ubuntu 12.04 were comparable to those from 11.10 so they not show to prevent unnecessary redundancy.

Overall the plots for Ubuntu 11.10 show the same sort of trend that was observed with CentOS 6.2 (which indicates that this is a kernel issue in general and not just a RHEL issue). The one exception is that the system time appears to be a bit higher with Ubuntu 11.10 than with CentOS 6.2, but once again, the resolution on this measurement is very course so I think that any conclusion other than "it appears to be a bit higher" would be stepping onto thin ice.

Ubuntu 11.10 vs Ubuntu 11.10 with BFS

A PPA that uses BFS with the Ubuntu kernel can be found at https://launchpad.net/~chogydan/+archive/ppa and this was installed to generate this comparison. I couldn't find an easy way to run CentOS 6.2 with BFS so I ran with this comparison and since the results of Ubuntu 11.10 compares so well with CentOS 6.2, I believe that it is a fair and meaningful comparison.

gettimeofday Ubuntu 11.10 gettimeofday Ubuntu 11.10 with BFS

The major point of note is that with BFS only select and nanosleep induce the "penalty" at low numbers of threads, but that it seems to induce a similar "penalty" (if not a greater one) as that seen with CFS for a higher number of threads.

utime Ubuntu 11.10 utime Ubuntu 11.10 with BFS

The other interesting point is that the system time appears to be lower with BFS than with CFS. Once again, this is starting to step on thin ice because of the coarseness of the data, but some difference does appear to be present and this result does match with the simple 50 process select loop test did show less CPU usage with BFS than with CFS.

stime Ubuntu 11.10 stime Ubuntu 11.10 with BFS

The conclusion that I draw from these two points is that BFS does not solve the problem but at least seems to reduce its affects in some areas.

Conclusion

As previously stated, I don't believe that this is an issue with the scheduler itself, but with the interaction between the sleeping mechanisms and the scheduler. I consider this increased CPU usage in processes that should be sleeping and using little to no CPU a regression from CentOS 5.6 and a major hurdle for any program that wants to use an event loop or polling style of mechanism.

Is there any other data I can get or tests I can run to help further diagnose the problem?

Update on Jun 29, 2012

I simplified the testing program a little bit and can be found here (The post was starting to exceed the length limit so had to move it).

share|improve this question
3  
Wow, thorough analysis - but with so much data the original question is getting fuzzier to me. Can you boil it down 1) a single test 2) a single distro 3) two different kernels 4) the 15% slowdown? If your hypothesis in last paragraph is right, it's time to start diffing kernel sources, but feels like the other variables should be eliminated first. –  ckhan May 6 '12 at 6:13
    
I added some outputs from the test application and now do the comparison in pairs to try and make it a little easier to digest all of the info. –  Dave Johansen May 7 '12 at 17:46
    
I tried to take a look at that bugzilla, but Redhat is saying that it is "an internal bugzilla, and not visible to the public." Have there been any updates on this? –  user21585 Aug 6 '12 at 13:40
    
I'm new to the whole RedHat bug thing, so that may have been something that I did (or didn't do) when creating the bug that did that, but the only update I've heard so far is an update to a parameter that makes it behave better with hyper threaded processors, but no real fix yet. –  Dave Johansen Aug 7 '12 at 16:25
2  
CFS is the completely fair scheduler? This sounds interesting - I ran into a performance problem with a java-based application on SLES11 SP2, too. The difference (to SP1) is the change in CFS... –  Nils Sep 27 '12 at 20:25
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1 Answer

According to SLES 11 SP2 release-notes this might be a change introduced to the way CFS is being implemented.

Since SLES 11 SP2 is the current SLES-version this behaviour is still valid (as it seems for all 3.x-kernels).

This change was intended - but might have "bad" side-effects. Perhaps one of the workarounds described helps for you...

share|improve this answer
    
It appears that there's something wrong with the link and the correct one is here, but I'll give those workarounds a try and see if they help performance. –  Dave Johansen Nov 29 '12 at 4:46
    
Any further news on this? –  vonbrand Feb 3 '13 at 17:13
    
@vonbrand You propably have to ask Dave... –  Nils Feb 7 '13 at 21:36
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