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What are the differences between Unix's fsck and Windows' chkdsk?

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I got rid of the Windows-specific parts of your question; if you want to ask about chkdsk itself try Super User – Michael Mrozek Oct 27 '11 at 17:37
up vote 10 down vote accepted

The internal structure of filesystems is totally different among each other, so different programs are needed for different filesystems. Even on UNIX/Linux systems there is a dedicated filesystem check program for every filesystem implementation (ext*, xfs, jfs, etc.)

Normally the initial command chkdsk/fsck checks the format of the underlying filesystem and then calls the dedicated check program.

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xfs? jfs? are those better descendants of ffs than ext? – Kaitlyn Mcmordie Oct 27 '11 at 17:30
Different filesystems - but it would be too lengthy here (and the wrong subject) to tell you all about different filesystems and it is all on Wikipedia. – ktf Oct 28 '11 at 10:42

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