There has been a similar question - but IMHO there has to be a simpler solution. If num-lock is on in the BIOS - why is it turned off during linux boot and/or KDE/Gnome/whatever startup?
Linux initializes most peripherals so that they'll be in a known state. This includes the keyboard: Linux's internal data about the keyboard had better match the LEDs, so what Linux does is to turn off the LEDs (as far as I recall, the CPU can't read the state of the LEDs on a PC keyboard) and declare all *Lock to be off.
I like to have NumLock on by default. For Linux text consoles, what I used to do¹ is to run
from a boot script (
Nowadays, at least on some distributions such as Debian, you can add
The X window system has its own keyboard handling, so you need to deal with it separately. What I do is to switch caps lock permanently off (I don't have a Caps Lock key in my layout) and switch num lock permanently on (I don't have a Num Lock key in my layout, and the keypad keys send
¹ Used to, because I haven't bothered with text consoles in a while.