You might be also interested not specifically in discovering samba (Windows) services on the local network, but in analoguous lists of services available on the local network discovered by other protocols.
So here's another answer:
you can also discover the services that have been published through avahi/bonjour (mdnssd) with tools like
avahi-browse -a (CLI) and
Modern GNU/Linux distros and Mac OS X usually publish itself and their shared services through avahi/bonjour for the discovery in the local network.