openSUSE might provide what you are looking for, thanks to the build system used to build packages.
Major releases are reasonably scheduled, and I have not often had problems jumping a few revisions ahead.
However, the way packages are built will let you have bleeding edge packages for specific topics, which appears to be what you are looking for, without worrying too much about incompatibilities with a specific released version. For each topic, there is a "devel project" where the actual development is performed. Factory, which always represents the next major release, is essentially an aggregation of the devel projects. However, the packages in each each project is also automatically built against all of the released versions that are still in maintenance, and packagers take a lot of care to maintain compatibility with older releases, as per the packaging guidelines.
So if you want to keep gcc up to date with the latest packages specifically built against openSUSE 11.4, you can add the devel:/gcc/openSUSE_11.4/ repository. This eliminates the dependency hell you may end up with if you simply grabbed the packages sitting in Factory, since that may have, for example, a newer glibc.
Similarly, you can add Java:/base/openSUSE_11.4/ and Java:/openjdk6:/Factory/openSUSE_11.4 for the latest Java stuff, and network:/chromium/openSUSE_11.4/ to track the latest Chromium.
On top of that, you can get an account and keep your own versions of packages, and let the build server handle the work of building them against multiple versions/architectures. (You can also build against many competing distros, as well)
You can browse the repositories directly here and you can search for packages here.
Hopefully that will provide what you're looking for.