What kind of partition table does Linux create by default? Is it msdos? Is it different depending on the Linux distribution used(I'm using Ubuntu)? Is there any command line utility I could use to find out that information?
There is no default partition format for Linux. It can handle many of popular and less popular formats.
The type is determined by the tool you are using.
Most distributions will create MS-DOS partitions on standard PC and possibly use GUID tables on EFI systems (like Macs) for simple reason - Windows cannot boot from GUID partition table with BIOS (which is on standard PC) - only EFI.
As for second part -
EDIT: If you want to bump partition table (binary) use
open up a terminal and list your drives first:
output similar to this:
From this you can see Disk /dev/sdb, and /dev/sda as disks.
To view partition table of one do:
Press "p" to list partitions or m for help. From here you can modify partition tables, and when you are all finished press "w" to write changes to disc. Next if you create a new partition, lets say ext3 you will need to use something like mkfs or a GUI based tool to create a ext3 partition there.
If you install Linux on a PC, the installation program will create one or more partitions in a format that is compatible with DOS, OS/2 and Windows, because that's the de facto standard for partitions on a PC.
If you install Linux on some other kind of hardware, the installation program may use a different partitioning scheme. Linux supports a lot of different schemes (you can see them all in the kernel configuration — search
Even on a PC, you might see other partition types for a variety of reasons: because you went out of your way to create them, because you inserted a disk from some other architecture, because you have another operating system that uses different partition types (e.g. *BSD, Solaris).
Unlike Microsoft Windows drive letters (C:,D: etc.), partitions on Linux show up as device files (/dev/sda1, /dev/sda2, /dev/sdb1 etc.). You can create the root directory on any one of the partition (as long as the partition is large enough) or spread it across several partitions (recommended).
In modern Linux distributions the filesystems you will find most often are ext2 and ext3; but they will also support read/write from NTFS and FAT32. Run