You're not completely clear on what exactly you are trying to see...your own password? Someone else's?
As I recall even the OS doesn't really know your password because it's hashed. You can clear a password from the shadow file, effectively blanking it (by booting from another boot disk, usually) then re-enter the password, but snatching the actual password would entail cracking the hashed string...brute forcing it or using a dictionary attack, rainbow tables or something like that. I'll leave the mechanics to your Google-fu.
So in short; no, you can't retrieve the password without intercepting and recording keystrokes, but you can erase the password if you have physical access to the drive (or image).
EDIT: Ah, clarified to show what you're typing as you type it. Again, nope, not in any version I know of. I believe this is to prevent shoulder surfing; people looking over your shoulder as you type, or remotely viewing your display as you type.
If you want to work around it (if you're using a GUI, for example) you can cut and paste your text string into the prompt, although that would usually be a pain. It depends on why you are wishing to echo your text (why bother double entering the password if you can see what you're typing...that was the point to having you re-enter your password, to cut down on typos.)
Depending on how your version of Linux works I suppose you could try directly hashing a password string and entering that resulting hash into the shadow file...kind of a strange workaround but one that may work. Or you could find an odd workaround wherein you have a PAM module authenticate against a different system/database that you can alter more directly. But anything that reveals your password at some stage through plain text is kind of asking for trouble from a security standpoint...you would need to decide how much risk you're willing to take.