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My /root is full to the brim and I can't install new packages. My /home has 8 times the space of my /root, but pacman is set to install new packages on /root. Is there a safe way that I can change where pacman permanently installs new packages?

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No, there is no safe way to do this in the long term. From the manual:

-r, --root
Specify an alternative installation root (default is /). This should not be used as a way to install software into /usr/local instead of /usr. This option is used if you want to install a package on a temporary mounted partition that is "owned" by another system. NOTE: if database path or logfile are not specified on either the command line or in pacman.conf(5), their default location will be inside this root path.

This is not a permanent solution. You need to backup your data and resize your partitions.

You could also clean pacman's cache (-Scc) to free up some space in the short term.

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Thanks. I already cleaned the cache and it didn't clear up much space. I suppose I'll back up and repartition. Thanks! –  JoshieSimmons Apr 2 at 2:52
    
@JoshieSimmons One of the benefits of using LVM: painless resizing... –  jasonwryan Apr 2 at 2:53
    
I take it I would have to reinstall Arch to benefit from LVM? –  JoshieSimmons Apr 2 at 2:59
    
@JoshieSimmons Yes. The upside is you could enable full disk encryption as well :) –  jasonwryan Apr 2 at 3:03

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