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I want to glob every hidden file and directory, but not the current (.) and parent directory (..).

I am using bash.

Observe current behaviour:

$ ls -a
.  ..  ...a  ...aa  ..a  ..aa  .a  .aa  .aaa  a
$ echo *
$ echo .*
. .. ...a ...aa ..a ..aa .a .aa .aaa

I would like .* to behave like this

$ echo .*
...a ...aa ..a ..aa .a .aa .aaa

There is the shell option dotglob

$ shopt -s dotglob

that works in a way; now I can use * to glob everything (hidden or not) but not . and ..

$ echo *
...a ...aa ..a ..aa .a .aa .aaa a

but now I can't differentiate between hidden or not. Also, .* still globs . and ..

$ echo .*
. .. ...a ...aa ..a ..aa .a .aa .aaa

Is there a way to make .* not expand to . and ..?

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marked as duplicate by Gilles Oct 16 '14 at 23:44

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.


7 Answers 7

up vote 22 down vote accepted

You can use the GLOBIGNORE variable to hide the . and .. directories. This does automatically also set the dotglob option, so * now matches both hidden and non-hidden files. You can again manually unset dotglob, though, this then gives the behavior you want.

See this example:

$ ls -a
.  ..  a  .a  ..a
$ shopt -u dotglob
$ echo * # all (only non-hidden)
$ echo .* # all (only hidden)
.a ..a
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This only works if you include the glob in the command; env GLOBIGNORE=". .." ls -a returns . and .. but ... ls -ad .* doesn't. –  gvkv Aug 24 '10 at 13:04
I don't get this comment... The question was not about the ls command, but about a glob -- "including the glob in the command" is exactly what the OP wanted to do... –  Marcel Stimberg Aug 24 '10 at 13:31
It's informational not critical. –  gvkv Aug 24 '10 at 13:48
No problem, I'm not afraid of criticism. It's just that I didn't understand the connection between the comment and my answer. But as I did also not understand your the connection between your answer and the original question that's consistent at least ;) –  Marcel Stimberg Aug 24 '10 at 13:55
Yeah, I got caught up with trying to make extended globbing patterns work with . the way I think it should using ls as a canonical command and forgot about the details of the post. –  gvkv Aug 24 '10 at 14:03

You want to show hidden files/folders BUT . and .. ?

Use this bash wildcard {.[!.]*,..?*}

Sample Data

You can try by generating sample data :

$ touch ...a  ...aa  ..a  ..aa  .a  .aa  .aaa  a
$ mkdir ...b  ...bb  ..b  ..bb  .b  .bb  .bbb  b


Below you can see the expected removed entries :

$ diff <(\ls -a) <(\ls -ad {.[!.]*,..?*})
< .
< ..
< a
< b


Useful to delete all hidden elements for example :

$ rm -rf .*
rm: cannot remove directory: `.'
rm: cannot remove directory: `..'

# <regenerate sample data here>

$ rm -rf {.[!.]*,..?*}
# No error
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try ls -A.

excerpt from the manual

"-A, --almost-all do not list implied . and ..")

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This glob requires a leading dot and at least one other non-dot character. This will glob any possible hidden files, but not . or .., which is exactly what you asked for.

ls -ld .[!.]*
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That would also exclude ..foo. The portable syntax is .[!.]*. .[^.]* is not standard (though supported by many shells) –  Stéphane Chazelas Jan 9 '14 at 10:20
@StephaneChazelas: Today I learned! Fixed. –  bukzor Mar 10 '14 at 17:48

With zsh:

echo .*

(zsh globs never expand . or .., which is the most sensible thing to do).

With bash:

shopt -s dotglob
echo [.]*


echo .*

(with bash, as soon as GLOBIGNORE is non-empty, both . and .. are automatically ignored (and dotglob is enabled)).

With ksh93

echo .*
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Are you just looking for files? Are you in a position to use find?

Something like:

find . -maxdepth 1 -name ".*" -f -printf "%P \n"
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ls -1a|egrep -v '^(\.|\.\.)$'
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ls should never be parsed or used in scripts, and certainly not as a replacement to globbing. –  MestreLion Mar 28 '13 at 7:19
Right, see mywiki.wooledge.org/ParsingLs for more information –  ignis Apr 25 '13 at 9:45

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