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I'm using a mac for some years now and as I'm currently learning ruby on rails, I felt like I should learn more about the system I'm using. I took a look at the ~/.bash_profile, it looks like this


[[ -s "$HOME/.rvm/scripts/rvm" ]] && source "$HOME/.rvm/scripts/rvm" # Load RVM$

# Setting PATH for Python 3.3
# The orginal version is saved in .bash_profile.pysave
export PATH
export PATH=/usr/local/bin:$PATH
export PATH=/usr/local/bin:$PATH

I'm completely new to this and tried to google my way though this but there are still some questions. The first one is: as there are two identical export PATH=/usr/local/bin:$PATH lines, I tried to delete the one. As a result, commands like nano and ls didn't work anymore. I reverted the change but I don't understand why it has to stated two times.

Another question is: why does it sometimes $PATH and sometimes just PATH without the $? Why does -s "$HOME/.rvm/scripts/rvm" stand in [[ ]] braces? And what does export PATH do?

Maybe someone could guide me to an easy to understand guide / tutorial / book where I could learn all this?

Update This is the output of echo $PATH


It seems like you were right with the newline. I deleted the line again and made sure that there is a blank line in the end. Now the commands are still working.

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Please don't combine multiple questions in a single post. The issue with PATH vs $PATH is explained here, and [[ ]] is a test operator, it basically means if. The duplicate exports should have no effect, that's weird, I recommend you focus on that one and make you question about the export. –  terdon Jan 26 '14 at 15:36
Ok, sorry for the multiple questions and thanks for the answers. –  Linus Jan 26 '14 at 15:43
Welcome to the bright side! Before we google, we like to read manuals, called man pages. Bash's man page (man bash) can answer all your questions. –  Bananguin Jan 26 '14 at 15:56
@Bananguin in the OP's defense, man bash is 5465 lines long, not the easiest of reads. –  terdon Jan 26 '14 at 16:54

1 Answer 1

up vote 2 down vote accepted

The PATH before = is a variable name and the combination tells bash to store the stuff behind the = in the variable.
The $PATH is the value of the variable PATH up until then.

The combination PATH="some_path_to_stuff:$PATH" extends the PATH variable. In bash this is a colon (:) separated list.

Regarding the double addition of /usr/local/bin, I can only guess that the second version has no newline after it (and is at the end of the file). In principle this should give you a PATH which starts with /usr/local/bin:/usr/local/bin:..... You can check that with

echo $PATH

And if there is only one time /usr/local/bin then do:

echo "" >> ~/.bash_profile

and login an try to print $PATH again.

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Thanks for the additional info. I updated my question with the echo $PATH output. It looks a little weird. –  Linus Jan 26 '14 at 16:11

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