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Can a program have its own dedicated X display, as though it can start the X display, set the screen size to match its own size and ensure that no other program can use that X display?

Some VNC clients specify the ability to run a chosen program in the display, rather than the whole desktop, and I wonder whether it something that is set on the command to bring up the X display. My web mojo isn't that good and I want to be run programs remotely in their own web tabs using noVNC and guacamole.

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No, you cannot simply give a program a Xdisplay. You would need a quite sophisticated window manager for that. Yet, I believe you mean Xserver, not Xdisplay, and yes, you can create multiple Xserver instances and only run one program inside them. However, AFAIK a program cannot adopt a Xserver, especially not the size of the screen.

From what you want to do you are likely to use the Xvnc variant of Xserver and Xvnc does take an argument -geometry widthxheight which is probably what you want. Yet, I don't think the geometry can't be changed once the server has been started.

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